!EXCLUSIVE! Practical Approach To Electroencephalography Download |WORK|
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The following books will introduce you to the vast world of EEG and give you some thorough guidelines into both the theory and practical approach to the subject as well as the tools to interpret the data. N.B. the books are not ranked in any way.
A practical handbook for EEG covering the fundamentals of electroencephalography and key aspects of EEG interpretation. It includes a comprehensive mini-atlas of EEG tracings, a glossary of EEG terms and an appendix with practical guidelines on diverse topics such as how to treat status epilepticus. The book also explains the most prominent EEG phenomena and tips for reading and reporting EEGs that includes clinical pearls.
The prognosis of patients who are admitted in a comatose state following successful resuscitation after cardiac arrest remains uncertain. Although the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and improvements in post-resuscitation care have significantly increased the number of patients who are discharged home with minimal brain damage, short-term assessment of neurological outcome remains a challenge. The need for early and accurate prognostic predictors is crucial, especially since sedation and TH may alter the neurological examination and delay the recovery of motor response for several days. The development of additional tools, including electrophysiological examinations (electroencephalography and somatosensory evoked potentials), neuroimaging and chemical biomarkers, may help to evaluate the extent of brain injury in these patients. Given the extensive literature existing on this topic and the confounding effects of TH on the strength of these tools in outcome prognostication after cardiac arrest, the aim of this narrative review is to provide a practical approach to post-anoxic brain injury when TH is used. We also discuss when and how these tools could be combined with the neurological examination in a multimodal approach to improve outcome prediction in this population.
The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the comatose patient surviving after anoxic injury and treated with TH, and to outline when and how the available tools should be combined with the neurological examination in a multimodal approach to improve the quality of prognostic assessment (Figure 1).
Multimodal approach to assess prognosis in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest treated with hypothermia. The multimodal approach to assess prognosis in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest treated with hypothermia should ideally include neurological examination combined with the use of electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), the measurement of biomarkers (neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100β protein) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Epilepsy surgery has been accepted as an effective treatment in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. However, the number of epilepsy neurosurgeons is not enough in China compared with the huge demand. The content of epilepsy neurosurgeon cultivation includes surgery itself as well as presurgical evaluation. In this article, we review not only different categories of epilepsy surgeries but also the presurgical evaluation approaches including non-invasive methods, such as semiology analysis, high-resolution structural and functional imaging techniques, scalp electroencephalography monitoring as well as invasive methods, such as electrocorticography (ECoG) and stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG). We also discuss the importance of learning each method briefly. In addition, we suggest that epilepsy neurosurgeons should have a solid structural and functional anatomy basis as it plays pivotal role in localizing epileptogenic zone. Epilepsy neurosurgeons should also be familiar with the staged presurgical evaluation starting from the most preliminary examinations and progressing to more complex and invasive methods. During the diagnosis and therapeutic procedures, collaboration between epilepsy neurosurgeons and other specialists is essential. At last, the necessity of epilepsy neurosurgeon cultivation has been emphasized.
Accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) before surgery is critical for a satisfying outcome. Seizure semiology can provide elementary information for clinical diagnosis and valuable topical diagnosis information . Several auxiliary examinations could be applied during the presurgical evaluation process accordingly. There are non-invasive methods, including electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). The invasive methods include electrocorticography (ECoG) and stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) . Epilepsy neurosurgeons should master different approaches to evaluate the EZ as well as the underlying mechanisms respectively.
Epilepsy neurosurgeons should realize that although progress in technologies, such as electroencephalography and neuroimaging, has improved our ability to accurately localize the EZ, however, failure of epilepsy surgery still cannot be fully avoided. Various hypotheses have been put forward like wrong localization of the epileptogenic zone, insufficient resection, dual pathology, very widespread epileptogenic zones . The accurate prediction of individual outcomes after epilepsy surgery still challenges epilepsy neurosurgeons . Long-term seizure free rate of resective surgery ranges from 27 to 66 % according to different type of surgery . Epilepsy neurosurgeons should take the duty of improving surgical outcome and avoiding complications at the same time. They should also conduct some practical clinical trial as well as basic research during the cultivation period. The ability to search and learn from literature are critical in improving professional level. Attending meetings and communicating with other epilepsy neurosurgeons are also helpful.
Recently, studies using electroencephalography (EEG) have experienced a renaissance due to improvements in recording and analyzing techniques [7, 56]. For example, Bonstrup et al.  recorded high-density EEG while hemiparetic patients within 5 days post-stroke performed an isometric visually guided whole-hand grip task with their paretic hand. The authors found that the re-emergence of low-frequency oscillations during movement preparation coincided with hand motor recovery with more robust increases in patients making a better recovery. Hence, this time-sensitive parameter might serve as a novel biomarker of recovered brain function that could, in the next step, be targeted in therapeutic approaches, e.g., using non-invasive brain stimulation.
This consensus article represents the basis for a more standardised diagnostic approach to the seizure patient. These recommendations will evolve over time with advances in neuroimaging, electroencephalography, and molecular genetics of canine epilepsy.
Manual infusion schemes only provide suggested doses and require titration to patient response with the aim of achieving appropriate clinical anaesthesia. They also need to be adjusted to account for various factors such as preoperative anxiety, use of adjuncts, required depth of anaesthesia, interindividual variability, and patient comorbidities. Target-controlled infusion models also vary in their accuracy due to the same factors mentioned and can even vary in their performance at different stages of infusion (bolus, maintenance, recovery).17,18 Using processed electroencephalography (pEEG) monitoring, such as BIS, to guide management is the preferred approach for dealing with any inaccuracies in TCI models or manual infusions, and other factors such as interindividual variability. 2b1af7f3a8