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The original compiler of the poems may have been Hammad al-Rawiya (8th century). The grammarian Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Nahhas (d. 949 CE) says in his commentary on the Mu'allaqat: "The true view of the matter is this: when Hammad al-Rawiya saw how little men cared for poetry, he collected these seven pieces, urged people to study them, and said to them: 'These are the [poems] of renown.'" Orfali suggests that the connection is "the multi-thematic qaṣidāh form".
Ibn Abd Rabbih in the Al-ʿIqd al-Farīd ("The Precious Necklace") states, "The Arabs had such an interest in poetry, and valued it so highly, that they took seven long pieces selected from the ancient poetry, wrote them in gold on pieces of Coptic linen folded up, and hung them up (allaqat) [sic] on the curtains which covered the Kaaba. Hence we speak of 'the golden poem of Imru' al-Qais,' 'the golden poem of Zuhayr.' The number of the golden poems is seven; they are also called 'the suspended' (al-Muʻallaqāt)." Similar statements are found in later Arabic works. Al-Nahhas, however, denied this in his commentary on the Muʻallaqāt: "As for the assertion that they were hung up in the Kaaba, it is not known to any of those who have handed down ancient poems."
The Muʻallaqah of Antarah ibn Shaddad and that of Zuhayr bin Abi Sulma contain allusions to the feuds of the kindred tribes Banu Abs and Banu Dhubyan. Famous as these contests were, their time cannot accurately be ascertained. But the date of the two poets can be approximately determined from other data. Ka'b bin Zuhayr, composed first a satire, and then, in the year 630, a eulogy on the Prophet; another son, Bujair, had begun, somewhat sooner, to celebrate Muhammad. Antara killed the grandfather of Ahnaf ibn Qais, who died at an advanced age in 686 or 687; he outlived 'Abdallah ibn Simma, whose brother Duraid was old when he died in battle against Muhammad's army (early in 630 CE); and he had communications with Ward, whose son, the poet Urwah ibn al-Ward, may perhaps have survived the flight of Muhammad to Medina. From these indications, German scholar Theodor Nöldeke placed the productive period of both poets in the end of the 6th century. The historical background of Antara's Muʻallaqat lies somewhat earlier than that of Zuhayr's.
The seven Mu'allaqat, and also the poems appended to them, represent almost every type of ancient Arabian poetry. Tarafa's poem includes a long, anatomically exact description of his camel, common in pre-Islamic poetry. The Mu'allaqat of 'Amr and Harith contain fakhr (boasting) about the splendors of their tribe. The song of Zuhayr is presented as the "practical wisdom of a sober man of the world." The other poems are fairly typical examples of the customary qasida, the long poem of ancient Arabia. The Mu'allaqat of 'Antara has a warlike tone, in contrast to the peaceful themes of Labid.
There is a high degree of uniformity in the Mu'allaqat. The poets use a strict metrical system. The only poem which shows unusual metrical freedom is the song of 'Abid. However, Abid's contemporary Imru' al-Qais, in a poem which in other respects also exhibits certain coincidences with that of 'Abid, also shows considerable licence in the use of the same rare metre. The deviations from the schema in 'Abid may be due to incorrect transmission by compilers who failed to grasp the metre. The other poems ascribed to 'Abid, together with all the rest attributed to Imru' al-Qais, are constructed in precise accord with the metrical canons.
The last poet in the Mu'allaqat is Hammad, the compiler of the Mu'allaqat. Hammad may have altered the text and transposed some verses. Some of the Mu'allaqat have several preambles: so, especially, that of 'Amr, the first eight verses of which belong not to the poem, but to another poet. Some of the poems exhibit great divergences (both in the order and number of the verses and in textual details) from their exemplars in other poetic anthologies. This is particularly the case with the oldest Mu'allaqat, that of Imru' al-Qais. According to Nöldeke, the most accurate text is that of the latest Mu'allaqat, the song of Labid.
The Mu'allaqat exist in many manuscripts, some with old commentaries. Printed editions include that of Charles James Lyall with the commentary of Tibrizi (Calcutta, 1894). Johnson's detailed translation, published by the Bombay Education Society in 1893, includes an introduction and analysis by Arabic scholar Shaikh Faizullabhai.
Aiming to make the mu`allaqat known to new readers, the project gathers a team of eight commentators and translators. They include Abdallah S. Alroshaid, Professor of Arabic Literature at Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud University; Saudi writer and physician Adi Alherbish; New York University Clinical Associate Professor David Larsen; Huda J. Fakhreddine, Associate Professor of Arabic Literature at the University of Pennsylvania; Kevin Blankinship, Assistant Professor of Arabic Literature at Brigham Young University; Saleh Said Alzahrani, Professor of Rhetoric and Criticism at Umm al-Qura University; Sami Abdulaziz AlAjlan, Assistant Professor of Literary Criticism at Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud University; and Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych, Sultan Qaboos bin Said Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University.
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